For directly marking parts or products, three major methods are in use today:
Most materials like metals and plastics, but also glass, ceramics and even tires get microglyph marked by lasers.
Another common method for microglyph marking is Dot-Peening, which is best suitable for rougher surfaces like cast iron parts, as they are commonly found in automotive motor production. But also a variety of plastics is well suitable for Dot-Peeing.
Further methods are Thermotransfer-, Inkjet-, or Laserprinting. These methods are well suitable for microglyph labelmarking, but also for direct application of microglyph codes to parts or products.